What Is DNS Table of Contents
What is DNS
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a globally distributed service that changes domain names like yourdomain.com to numeric internet protocol (IP) address which computers use to connect to each other.
In other words, a DNS server converts users' request domain name into an Internet protocol (IP) address which users and servers will reach when they type a domain name in a web browser.
How DNS Works
All internet devices Interact with each other by using numbers. These numbers are called Internet Protocol (IP) address. Each time you open a web browser in order to visit a website, you don't have to type in the numbers. Rather you type the domain name and still get to the right destination.
Four DNS Servers Responsible For Loading A Webpage
- DNS Recursor: DNS recursor is a server programmed to collect queries from a user's device via applications like browsers and enhance the request to meet the users DNS query.
- Root name server: This is the first stage of changing readable domain names into IP address. It can be seen as a reference to other specified locations.
- TLD name server: Top-level domain nameserver keeps information for all domain names that have the same domain extension.
- Authoritative name server: Authoritative nameserver provides answers to questions about domain names distinctively designed by the administrator.
The Steps In DNS Lookup
Mostly, DNS is responsible for translating a domain name to the right IP address. To understand how it works; it makes sense to know how DNS generates traffic as it moves from a web browser. The following steps describe how DNS brings traffic to a browser:
Steps In DNS Lookup
- A web user types a domain name 'abcd.com' into a browser and clicks enter, the query moves to the internet, and the DNS recursive resolver receives it.
- The DNS resolver takes the request for the domain name typed “abcd.com” to a DNS root server.
- The root name server now replies to the resolver with the address of TLD a top-level domain DNS server like'.org, .com, .net' which keeps the details for the domain. When searching for a domain name, the request goes to the '.com' TLD.
- The DNS resolver now makes a request to the '.com' top-level domain (TLD)
- The TLD server reaches out with the IP address of the domain’s name server abcd.com.
- Getting to the recursive resolver, this server takes the request to the domain’s name server.
- The IP address of the domain name now travels to the resolver via the nameserver.
- The DNS resolver now replies to the browser with the initial IP address of the domain.
Once the above steps return the IP address for abcd.com, the browser can now request for the web page.
- Now, the browser can make HTTP queries to the IP address
- Finally, the IP server gives the web page to be shown in the browser.
What Is A DNS Resolver?
DNS resolver is the very first stage in domain name system lookup; it is in charge of helping users that made the first request. The resolver starts series of requests that lead to a URL being changes to the main IP address.
The Various Types Of DNS Queries
DNS query types include the following : Recursive query, iterative query, and non-recursive query. Lets examine these in more detail below.
- Recursive query: With the recursive query, the DNS will create a hostname and requires the DNS resolver to provide an answer. In response, the DNS resolver will provide the necessary result or error message in a situation where it can't find the records.
- Iterative query: Here the DNS produces a hostname and expects the DNS resolver to provide the most excellent answer it can. If the DNS serve has the right records, it will send them, if not it will provide a referral to a DNS server authority that is closest to the requested DNS area. The circle continues with some other DNS server until its timeout or an error occurs.
- Non-recursive query: In this case, the DNS resolver already has the response. It either requests the nameserver with authority which it has the right IP address or it gives a DNS record because it has stored it in the local cache.
Meaning Of DNS Caching
DNS cache is a provisional database conserved by a machine’s operating system which has all the records of current and attempted visits to websites.
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